HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sat, 05 Dec 2020 17:46:28 GMT 亚洲一品道视频

广州:毕业季到来 租房市场需求旺盛 放租好时机

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 国常会:旅游、金融等领域推出服务贸易开放举措 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

家居业进入“上市爆发期” 业内质疑“为圈钱”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

该报告显示,社交媒体,尤其是微信,过去一年里在40岁以上人群中变得越来越受欢迎。
While heavily dominated by French and English schools, accounting for 44 per cent of the table, the ranking is more diverse than ever with schools from 25 countries.
回忆:fanfare(n 夸耀)
持有40亿美元亚洲相关资产的美国投资机构Cohen & Steers的基金经理梁纬濂(William Leung)认同这一点。他主张,随着价格下跌,投机性投资将被驱逐出市场。他补充称,行业中另类投资热度上升的趋势应当意味着,即便基础资产的价值上涨得更慢,房地产投资信托的价格也会上升。“我们认为,这次调整的幅度将不会太大,”他说。
Theresa May, the new British prime minister, earns 143,462 pounds ($186,119) a year. That includes her salary as a member of parliament, which is 74,962 pounds ($97,256) a year.
[.dem?n'strein]
The unemployment rate probably won't fall quite as rapidly in 2015, according to economists, especially if more people enter the labor force because jobs are easier to find. Yet another large spate of hiring similar to the gain in 2014 would make the low unemployment rate more believable.

'We are quite confident that it should sell towards the high end of the estimate or above.'
2011年,她的妈妈梅丽莎(Melissa)报名参加Lifetime频道的真人秀节目《Dance Moms》。
Best Companies rank: 1
French authorities said in December that they have dismantled about a dozen networks that were sending people to fight in Iraq and Syria.
在成为德国最大贸易伙伴之前,中国是德国在亚洲的最大贸易市场。在过去两年里,德国一直是中国在欧洲最大的贸易伙伴。

Footnotes

  • 楼盘标价不规范被罚1000元
  • 节目6 小品《想跳就跳》,潘长江 蔡明 郭丰周

瑞士、瑞典、英国再次占据榜单前三名。全球创新指数25强经济体中,有15个来自欧洲。
Entrepreneurs are movers and shakers. They can’t afford to analyze every detail or they’d never get anywhere. There is no place for procrastination in a startup. It’s a 24/7, no-vacation-or-sick-days kind of job that demands constant forward momentum. Make a brief assessment at every step and move on it. Trust your instincts.
无论从哪个角度看,2014年都是本田汽车公司宁愿忘却或掩盖的一年,看看本田为2015年提出的宏大口号——“本田之年”就知道了。
Online sales contributed 82.6 percent of sales. Online sales have prompted traditional stores, including 13 of Beijing's 77 "time-honored brands" from snack stores to shoes sellers, to move their goods online.
下面是2014年的几部重现活力、需要刮目相看的老剧——以及几部死气沉沉的老剧。
Instead it ticked upward slightly to 8.3 per cent.

华润昆仑域11项整改业主拒绝接受 直指项目存四大问题

References

View Abstract